IN the past 15 years there has been a tremendous increase in the use of endoscopy in dogs, cats and horses. In avian veterinary practice, endoscopy is also very useful and sometimes it is essential for arriving at the correct diagnosis. This article aims to present a practitioner's guide to endoscopy in parrots. The commonest reason for endoscopic examination in these birds is gender determination. Internal laparoscopy also provides a useful and minimally invasive diagnostic tool for the investigation of many avian medical conditions. A range of common pathological conditions is illustrated here and contrasted with the normal endoscopic appearance. It is not intended that these pictures should provide a complete range of differential diagnoses but, rather, a starting point for the novice avian endoscopist.
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