TOXIC mastitis - mastitis which results in a toxin-induced shock syndrome - is most commonly caused by the coliform organisms Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Enterobacter species and Serratia species. A cow with toxic mastitis is a veterinary emergency and a challenge to the practitioner. Difficulties arise because the pathogenesis of the disease has not been fully determined; there are many suggested treatments but little information on which, if any, significantly improve the chances of survival; preventive measures are not well understood and appear to vary in effectiveness; and there may be important individual cow factors which dictate the incidence and severity of disease.
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