PERITONITIS is localised or diffuse inflammation of the peritoneal cavity and is most commonly associated with bacterial contamination from the gastrointestinal tract. Mortality associated with this condition is high, and rapid diagnosis and early surgical and/or medical intervention is essential to optimise the outcome. This article describes the diagnostic tests, and various medical and surgical options available for the treatment of peritonitis in small animals, with emphasis on the management of bacterial (septic) peritonitis and uroperitoneum (urine peritonitis). In addition, it discusses the factors that influence the prognosis and outcome of affected cases.
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