EPISTAXIS – bleeding from the nostrils – is a relatively common condition in the horse. Haemorrhage may originate from a number of locations, including the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, ethmoid labyrinth, guttural pouches or lungs. There are a number of potential causes of the condition, some of which are mild and self-limiting, and others, such as guttural pouch mycosis, which are potentially life threatening and require surgical intervention. This article discusses how to distinguish emergency from non-emergency cases, and describes a range of investigations that will help in establishing a diagnosis. It goes on to discuss treatment approaches for the most important causes of epistaxis.
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