THIS article describes the normal stages of parturition and discusses how to recognise and manage dystocia in dogs and cats. In each case, it is important to have a good understanding of normal parturitic parameters and to maintain good communication with the client. Intuition will also play a part in knowing when to wait and when to intervene, and once it has been established that a birth is not progressing normally, successful management will depend on quick, decisive action to ensure the safety of the bitch or queen and their offspring.
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