Fertility performance remains central to profitable beef and dairy production. Delayed calving to conception intervals translate to lost income. Hence, the bull represents a significant investment in both beef and dairy systems, and subfertility in these animals is a serious issue. Around two-thirds of subfertile bulls may be detected by physical examination alone, with one of the clinical signs being scrotal enlargement. This article describes a systematic diagnostic approach to scrotal enlargement in bulls and discusses the common differential diagnoses for this presentation.
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