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Companion animal practice
Haematuria in small animals
  1. Susie Kenefick

    Susie Kenefick graduated from Cambridge in 1999. After a year in private practice, she undertook an internship in anaesthesia at Cambridge and a residency in small animal medicine at the Royal Veterinary College. She subsequently spent a couple of years in private referral practice. She is currently a clinical pathologist at Axiom Veterinary Laboratories.


Haematuria can be macroscopic or microscopic in nature. Macroscopic haematuria is grossly visible in the urine, while microscopic haematuria is not apparent with the naked eye and is variably defined. There are numerous causes of haematuria, including pathology of the urinary and genital tracts, as well as more generalised bleeding disorders. Although haematuria can be asymptomatic, specific clinical signs may provide clues about the underlying problem. Diagnostic evaluation may require laboratory analysis, imaging, cystoscopy or open surgery, and management will ultimately involve treating the root cause. This article outlines the main diseases associated with haematuria, and describes the diagnostic work-up in dogs and cats.

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