Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection is commonly diagnosed in pet rabbits and has been recognised for some time in farm and laboratory rabbits. It is an opportunistic pathogen of humans causing disease in immunosuppressed HIV-positive patients and many other animal species, but the primary host is the rabbit where subclinical infections are common. While there is a wealth of literature on this disease in laboratory rabbits, much is still unknown about the disease in pet rabbits. Findings are often confusing and, in some instances, conflicting, making interpretation difficult, particularly with regard to the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. This article clarifies what we do and don't know about E cuniculi infection, focusing on diagnostic and treatment options. It also summarises recent developments and research into this disease, which may aid in the diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis in pet rabbits.
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