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Clinical examination and diseases of the fundus in dogs
  1. Kerry Smith

Abstract

The fundus, which can be examined through the pupil by ophthalmoscopy, is the posterior part of the interior of the eye and comprises the tapetal and nontapetal fundus, retinal vasculature and optic nerve head. As well as providing significant information about a dog's visual status and ocular health, it is the only area of the body where the vascular and nervous systems can be examined directly and thus alert us to signs of systemic disease that may not yet have manifested elsewhere. This article guides the practitioner through the clinical examination of the fundus in dogs, and highlights some common conditions.

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