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Pathogens in otitis externa: diagnostic techniques to identify secondary causes of ear disease
  1. Stephen Shaw
  1. UK VetDerm, 16 Talbot Street, Whitwick, Coalville, Leicestershire LE67 5AW, UK
  1. email: information{at}


This article describes the diagnostic techniques needed in the approach to otitis externa in the dog with particular emphasis on the correct identification of microbes causing secondary and perpetuating features of the disease. The common organisms are described, along with the numbers and features that determine whether treatment is necessary, with the emphasis on the correct use of the microscope and cytological interpretation.

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