Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as a chronic sustained reduction in renal function and/or structural change. CKD therefore, by this definition, includes patients with tubulointerstitial nephritis, considered the typical finding in CKD, and also patients with primary glomerular disease. The distinction between these is important as they may differ in aetiology and approach to management. In patients with CKD, proteinuria can develop as a result of tubular or glomerular injury. In addition, proteinuria may cause renal injury and contribute to the progression of CKD. This article will review the pathophysiology of proteinuria in CKD, its diagnostic workup and management.
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