Table 1:

Laboratory test results associated with canine leishmaniosis (CanL) (based on Paltrinieri and others 2010)

Basic testFindingsAdditional tests*
HaematologyPoorly regenerative or non-regenerative anaemia
Possible regenerative anaemia (due to an immune-mediated process)
Neutrophilia and monocytosis with lymphopenia and eosinopenia
Possible thrombocytopenia

Coombs’ test or flow cytometry to detect antibodies against red blood cells

Bone marrow cytology
aPTT, PT, FDPs, AT, D-dimers to rule in/out disseminated intravascular coagulation; tests for coinfection (eg, with Ehrlichia canis); flow cytometry to detect antibodies against PLTs
Basic coagulation profileHyperfibrinogenaemia and increased PT and aPTTExtended coagulation profile (FDPs, AT, D-dimers)
Serum biochemistryHyperproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, hyperglobulinaemia, reduced albumin:globulin ratio
Azotaemia (increased urea and/or creatinine)
Increased hepatic enzymes
Acute phase proteins (CRP, haptoglobin, SAA)
Lipid concentrations (hypocholesterolaemia)
Electrolyte concentrations (hypokalaemia)
Mineral concentrations (hyperphosphataemia and hypermagnesaemia)
Blood gas analysis (metabolic acidosis)
Liver function tests
Serum protein electrophoresisHypoalbuminaemia, increased α2-globulin concentration, polyclonal or oligoclonal gammapathyAcute phase proteins (CRP, haptoglobin, SAA)
UrinalysisIsothenuria (specific gravity 1.008 to 1.012) or poorly concentrated urine (<1.030)
Proteinuria (determined by dipstick test and UPC)

SDS-AGE of urine to detect evidence of mixed or glomerular proteinuria
  • *To be performed for a more complete staging system, if findings of initial tests are consistent with CanL

    aPTT Activated partial thromboplastin time, AT Antithrombin III, CRP C-reactive protein, FDPs Fibrin or fibrinogen degradation products, PLTs Platelets, PT Prothrombin time, SAA Serum amyloid A, UPC Urine protein:creatinine ratio, SDS-AGE SDS-agarose gel electrophoresis