Table 1:

Agents employed for decontamination*

DrugDoseComments
Apomorphine0.1 mg/kg scCan cause sedation and hypotension
MDR1 mutation dogs may be more sensitive to its effects
Not effective in cats
Xylazine0.1 mg/kg sc (0.6 mg/kg im also reported)Causes emesis in approximately 60% of cats
Causes sedation, hypotension and bradycardia
Use not advised in patients with cardiovascular disease or geriatric patients
Medetomidine
(dexmedetomidine can also be used)
5–10 μg/kg imCauses sedation, hypotension and bradycardia
Use not advised in patients with cardiovascular disease or geriatric patients
Sodium carbonate (washing soda) crystalsApproximately 1 cm3 per 20 kgReported to be less effective than apomorphine in dogs
Deactivated by light
Requires contact with gastric mucosa, so less effective if large volume of gastric content
Sodium carbonate powder can cause ulceration and should not be used
Activated charcoal1–3 g/kg repeated every 4–8 hours if toxin undergoes enterohepatic recirculationCan be administered with food
Only use a sorbitol-containing preparation once
Intravenous lipid emulsion therapy1.5 ml/kg of a 20% lipid emulsion over 15 mins, followed by 0.25–0.5 ml/kg/min for 30–90 minutesSeveral protocols exist, but this is a commonly recommended dose
  • * Yam and others 2016, Ramsey 2017, Robben and Dijkman 2017

  • im Intramuscularly, iv Intravenously, sc Subcutaneously