Table 1:

Possible adverse outcomes of disbudding

Adverse outcomeCause
Regrowth of horns resulting in unsightly scurs
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Poor technique, buds are too large as the kid is too old
Prolonged recovery timeAnaesthetic overdose
Disbudding meningoencephalitisProlonged application of the iron
Convulsions/seizuresProlonged application of the iron
Fractured skullProlonged or overzealous use of the iron
DeathAnaesthetic overdose, hypothermia