Style guide


Illustrations may be supplied in the form of:

  • Line diagrams
  • Digital colour photographs. These should be JPEG, EPS or TIFF files, at an image size of 2000 x 2000 pixels (4 megapixels) or above. Note that images of less than 1000 x 1000 pixels (1 megapixel) are not suitable for publication. Please label images to correspond with the list of numbered figure captions; for example “Figure 3.jpg” or “Figure 7B.jpg”, etc. If scanning prints or slides for submission, they should be at least 15 cm wide and have a minimum resolution of 300 dots per inch (dpi).

Endoscopy images should ideally be taken using an endoscope camera, rather than scanned from a monitor or screen.

Details of the original magnification and stain used should be included for histology or cytology images.

Pictures of individual medicinal products should be avoided. Where it is desirable to illustrate therapeutic agents, a composite image showing a selection of available products is preferable.

If images require arrows, labels etc, please indicate these as necessary.

Where illustrations loaned by a third party, or already published in another work, are used within an article, the author should ensure that express permission has been obtained and should supply an appropriate acknowledgement.


All units of measurement should be given in the metric system or in SI units. Temperatures should be in °C.

References and further reading

As the article should be in the form of an ‘opinionated review’, any references should be kept to a maximum of 10. References should, however, be included if there is a point of contention, or when referring to new work (within the past two years) or specific results of studies. A short selection of key texts can be provided separately as a further reading list.

Citation of references within the text

In the text, references should be cited as follows: Smith (1995) described…/…recorded earlier (Brown and Jones 1994, Smith and others 1997). Lists of references should be given in date order in the text.

Reference list

References should be listed alphabetically. In the reference list, all authors’ names and initials should be given followed by the date, title of the paper, full title of the journal, volume number and full page range, eg: SMITH, A. B., JONES, C. D. & BROWN, E. F. (1995) How to list your references. Veterinary Record 136, 71-76

Book references should include the chapter title if appropriate, the full title of the book, the edition, the editors, the publisher and page numbers of the material referred to, eg: SMITH, A. B., JONES, C. D. & BROWN, E. F. (1993) How to list your references. In Getting It Right, 3rd edn. Eds S. Adams and J. Alexander. Society of Reference Publishers. pp 23-37

Proceedings should include the title of the paper given at the meeting, proceedings title, town, country, month date a to b, and page numbers (if applicable), eg: MILLER, W. (1976) A state-transition model of epidemic foot-and-mouth disease. Proceedings of an International Symposium: New Techniques in Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics. Reading, UK, July 12 to 15. p 56

Websites should include the title of the page, website address and date accessed, eg: DEFRA (2001) Explanation of Foot and Mouth Restrictions. Accessed August 24, 2001

Personal communications should be cited within the text and follow the form ‘A. B. Smith, personal communication’.


Drugs should be referred to by their Recommended International Non-Proprietary Name, as listed on the website of the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. When referring to a specific commercial product, the manufacturer’s name should be given when first mentioned; eg, fenbendazole (Pancur; Intervet). If an article refers to medicinal products not licensed for use in animals, or not for the application described, this must be made clear.

Parasitic infections

Parasitic infections should be referred to according to the Standardised Nomenclature of Parasitic Diseases (SNOPAD) guidelines, which are summarised by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology.


Where applicable, a brief discussion of any ethical considerations should be included, with a view to raising awareness and guiding the veterinary practitioner in the principles of ethical decision-making.